DSC06429-001East Timor (i /ˌiːst ˈtiːmɔr/), officially named Timor-Leste, (Tetum: Timór-Leste; officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) is a state in Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, anexclave on the northwestern side of the island, within Indonesian West Timor. The small country of 15,410 km² (5,400 sq mi) is located about 640 km (400 mi) northwest of Darwin, Australia.

East Timor was colonized by Portugal in the 16th century, and was known as Portuguese Timor until Portugal’s decolonization of the country. In late 1975, East Timor declared its independence, but later that year was invaded and occupied by Indonesia and was declared Indonesia’s 27th province the following year. In 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination, Indonesia relinquished control of the territory and East Timor became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on May 20, 2002. East Timor is one of only two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being the Philippines.

East Timor is a lower-middle-income economy. It continues to suffer the aftereffects of a decades-long independence struggle againstIndonesia, which damaged infrastructure and displaced thousands of civilians. It is placed 120th by Human Development Index (HDI).

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The following statistics come from a paper written by ADRA Timor-Leste Country Director, Luc Sabot…

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PAPER for Concept of Community Development by Luc Sabot